Essay research

I used ‘Bubbl’ to create the following mind map and get a bit of direction with my essay. Mapping it out like this helped figure out what each paragraph would focus on, and what points that I wanted to make. Having a visual of my research also made me aware that due to the broadness of the topic, I would need to ensure relevant and focussed points.

My argument will support the following: Lack of transparency and advances in communications technology make the worldwide hacktivist network ‘Anonymous’ a necessary function of the twenty-first century.

My essay will be structured in three main paragraphs that will outline the importance of a free internet (free from filters), the purpose of hacktivism and how the internet has shifted power by allowing collective actions. At the end of each paragraph I will provide a direct example of how Anonymous has achieved a purpose and contributed in each area. This method will both link and support my argument that Anonymous are a necessary function of the 21st century. I also believe that weaving examples throughout the essay will maintain relevancy, constantly reinforce my argument and make sure I don’t stray off topic.


The following five references have been essential to my research and have given me direction as well as supporting my argument:

1: Fuchs, C 2014, Social Media, politics and the state: protests, revolutions, riots, crime and policing in the age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, Routledge, New York

2: Kelly, B. B 2012, “Investing in a centralized cybersecurity infrastructure: why “hacktivism” can and should influence cybersecurity reform”, Boston University Law Review, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1663

3: Bertola, V 2010, “Power and the Internet”, Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 323-337

4: McChesney, R.W 2015, Rich Media, Poor Democracy: Communication Politics in Dubious Times, The New Press, New York

5: Krapp, P 2005, “Terror and Play, or What Was Hacktivism?”, Grey Room, vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 70-93


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